The Oil and Gas Industry's Policy Advocacy in Africa and Europe

How the sector is promoting fossil gas lock-in despite IPCC warnings

August 2023

See coverage in ESG Investor, Guardian Nigeria.

This report maps how European energy corporations are influencing climate and energy investment policy globally. Using LNG advocacy in Europe and Africa as a case study, it demonstrates how industry's attempts to influence policy risks locking in fossil fuels across the entire value chain, from upstream production to downstream demand for its products.

InfluenceMap analyzes climate policy engagement activities from 15 companies of the European oil & gas and utilities sectors that have proposed or begun constructing new LNG export terminals in Africa and import terminals in the EU as of May 2023, as identified by Global Energy Monitor. The companies assessed in the research are: BP, E.ON, Enagás, Enel, Engie, Eni, Equinor, Fluxys, GALP, Gasunie, PGNiG, RWE, Shell, Snam and TotalEnergies.

The report maps out three distinct phases of this advocacy and narrative capture;

(i) Promoting gas exploration and LNG infrastructure in Africa;

(ii) Advocating for LNG import/transportation in Europe; and

(iii) Weakening several EU climate policies that would reduce gas demand in the bloc.

In total, 13 companies were found to be directly engaged in at least one aspect of these international advocacy efforts. E.ON was the only company not identified to be engaging on these issues. Leading majors Shell, BP and TotalEnergies were found to be engaging in all three.

Of the 15 entities identified in the analysis, only two European utilities with ownership shares in new LNG terminals in Europe, E.ON and Enel, have focused advocacy efforts on a scale-up of renewable energies and a phase-out of fossil fuels. Both companies also took positive positions on European climate legislation, supporting reductions in demand for fossil gas technologies and transitioning to zero-emissions technologies.

It is noted that logos of industry associations and companies are occasionally utilized in the graphics associated with the analysis in this report, as is common practice in public facing releases of this kind. This in no way implies agreement and/or endorsement by the entities concerned with the report’s content.

Correction, 24/08/2023: Graphics 1 and 3 have been amended to highlight the Republic of Congo, having previously incorrectly highlighted the Democratic Republic of Congo

About InfluenceMap

InfluenceMap is a non-profit think tank providing objective and evidence-based analysis of how companies and financial institutions are impacting the climate and biodiversity crises. Our company profiles and other content are used extensively by a range of actors including investors, the media, NGOs, policymakers, and the corporate sector. InfluenceMap does not advocate or take positions on government policy. All our assessments are made against accepted benchmarks, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our content is open source and free to view and use (


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"Reducing methane emissions is indispensable for reaching EU's climate goals and reducing our dependency on fossil fuel imports.

“Without tackling imports, the EU Methane Regulation would have a limited effect, as 90% of our oil and gas is imported. Therefore, the European Parliament calls for the extension of measures to imports, because most methane emissions occur outside the EU."

Jutta Paulus MEP (Greens / EFA) Rapporteur for the EU Methane Regulation

At a time when it is critical for new energy investments to be aligned with the transition to net-zero emissions, InfluenceMap's tools and analysis help to bring to light European energy firms' lobbying efforts that slow down climate change mitigation. As such, the report helps to take stock and change course where operations on the ground and policy advocacy deviate from publicly stated commitments to a low-carbon world. We encourage energy corporations from Europe and other regions to continue mitigating climate change by aligning all actions accordingly, from marketing to advocacy and operations.

Pavel Laberko, Director of Extractive Industries Program at the Emerging Markets Investors Alliance